The two main sex hormones — estrogen and testosterone — have wide-ranging effects in the body. Produced primarily by the ovaries estrogen and testes testosterone , these hormones affect not just your sexual function but also your bones, brain, and blood vessels, for example. As people age, the natural decline in sex hormone levels sometimes causes undesirable symptoms, such as hot flashes or a flagging sex drive. Doctors can prescribe pills, patches, gels, and creams containing estrogen or testosterone to ease those symptoms. But are these products safe for your heart? Hormone therapy has a long, controversial history, especially with regard to estrogen.
Male and female sex hormones in primary headaches
Male and female sex hormones in primary headaches | The Journal of Headache and Pain | Full Text
Stay Connected. Follow us on Twitter for women's health research alerts. Heart disease is the leading cause of death for women. Women often experience heart disease differently than men. For example, men have more heart attacks than women, but women have a higher heart attack death rate. Women experience higher bleeding rates during percutaneous coronary interventions PCI performed through femoral arterial access.
Metrics details. The three primary headaches, tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache, occur in both genders, but all seem to have a sex-specific prevalence. These gender differences suggest that both male and female sex hormones could have an influence on the course of primary headaches. This review aims to summarise the most relevant and recent literature on this topic. The estrogen withdrawal hypothesis forms the basis for most of the assumptions made on this behalf.
Females and males differ in the energy consumption and nutritional requirements which are based on the interactions between environmental factors and sex hormones 1. The studies in early s ascertained that females have enhanced capability of producing antibodies 2 , 3. This enhanced immune reactivity in females helps mount an effective resistance to infection and therefore females are less susceptible to viral infections, but can develop immune-pathogenic effects and predisposition to autoimmunity due to hyper immune responses 4 , 5. Sex hormones can also control the immune response via circadian rhythm.